|TYPES OF FOODS||SUITABLE TEAS|
|English Breakfast |
(fried foods, eggs, smoked fish, ham, bacon)
|Ceylon Pekoe, English Breakfast, Assam, Darjeeling|
|Continental Breakfast (breads, cheese, jams)||Ceylon Pekoe, Assam, Darjeeling|
|Light Savory Meals and Brunch||Ceylon Pekoe, Assam, Darjeeling, Green, Oolong|
|Meat and Game||Earl Grey, Jasmine|
|Poultry||Darjeeling, Oolong, Jasmine|
|Fish||Darjeeling, Oolong, Earl Grey, Green|
|Spicy Foods||Ceylon Pekoe, Darjeeling, Oolong, Green, Jasmine|
|Tea Time||All Teas|
|Strong Cheeses||Earl Grey, Green|
|After A Meal||Darjeeling, Green, Oolong|
Saturday, December 02, 2006
Wednesday, November 22, 2006
Saturday, November 11, 2006
Cola ......................45 mg per 8 oz serving
Black Tea ................40 mg per 6 oz cup
Flavored Tea ............40 mg per 6 oz cup
Oolong Tea ..............30 mg per 6 oz cup
Green Tea ...............20 mg per 6 oz cup
White Tea ...............15 mg per 6 oz cup
Decaf Tea ................5 to 10 mg per 6 oz cup
Thursday, November 09, 2006
I just bought this tea online and received the shipment today. I am now drinking a pot of this White Darjeeling Tea out of my new Yixing Tea Pot. I have grown receintly to truly love white teas and out of all teas the tea grown in the Darjeeling province if India have always been my favorite teas to drink. This however is my first batch of Darjeeling White Tea I have ever received before, and I must say that this is most defiantly the best pot of tea I have ever had.
If anyone else has a liking for white teas, I would highly suggest that you invest in a white tea from the Darjeeling province in India!
The tea has a light flavor, like most Darjeeling teas, and is not as "nutty" as most white teas, and the finish is not clean, but has a very pleasant light lingering that is relaxing to me.
Tuesday, November 07, 2006
Monday, November 06, 2006
DR. T.S. SARAVANAN
|Catechins in green tea are novel biocompounds with multifarious health benefits.|
Protective effects: Preparing green tea in Japan.
GREEN tea is a perennial shrub belonging to the family Camellia, native to the mountainous southwest of China. Teas are usually categorized into two types: Chinese (Variety Sinensis) and Assam (Variety Assamica). All teas come from leaves that are picked and processed from the same type of tree. The specific method of processing differentiates the various types of teas into green, black, and oolong tea.
In preparing green tea, the leaves are dried but not fermented. Commercially prepared green tea extracts contain 60 per cent polyphenols.
Good for health
There are four primary polyphenols in green tea and they are often collectively referred to as catechins. As powerful antioxidants, catechins have been shown in recent studies to fight viruses, slow aging, antiproliferative effect on cancer cells and also have other beneficial effect on health.
Clinical tests have shown that catechins destroy free radicals and have far-reaching positive effects on the entire body. The free radicals are highly reactive molecules that can damage the body at the cellular level leaving the body susceptible to cancer, heart disease and many other degenerative diseases.
Recent research findings suggest that green tea confers protective effects against many cancers.
The incidence of prostate cancer, for example, is the lowest in China and Japan, countries with high green tea consumption. Risk of oesophageal cancer was reduced by 60 per cent in those who consume two to three cups of green tea daily in China. A prospective cohort study of 8,552 Japanese found a significant inverse relationship between green tea consumption and cancer incidence.
Females consuming more than 10 cups of green tea daily had the most notable protection, compared with those consuming less than three cups per day.
Green tea consumption has also been associated with a better outcome in some with breast cancer. Higher intake of green tea (mean: eight cups a day) is associated with a significantly reduced recurrence rate and a longer disease-free period, particularly among pre-menopausal women with histologically classified stage I and II breast Cancer. Among the specific green tea related benefits noted in patients were decreased numbers of axillary lymph node metastases.
Further, Epigallocaechin-3-gallate (EGCG) especially has shown marked anti-cancer effects against breast, colon, prostate, pancreatic, skin, bladder, lung, stomach, ovarian, leukaemia and liver cancer.
ECGC has also been shown to induce apoptosis in several of these cancer types while leaving normal cells unaffected and also shown to inhibit urokinase, a proteolytic enzyme often required for cancer growth, angiogenesis and androgen activity in prostate cell line. Very recently ECGC has been shown to be more effectively suppress the growth of prostate cancer and epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines derived from tumours of patients with different stage of disease.
Heart and cholestrol
The incidence of cardiovascular disease in China is about 80 per cent lower than in developed countries. This has been associated with the high consumption of green tea.
Numerous epidemiological studies have also associated high intake of green tea with decreased risk of atherogenesis in Japan.
In nitro and animal studies have shown that green tea and its catechins, especially EGCG, can help prevent oxidation of LDL-cholesterol. Recently, a human study demonstrated that EGCG inhibits phospholipids hydroperoxidation in plasma.
Mixed results have been reported on the ability of green tea to significantly reduce LDL-cholesterol oxidation in humans in that daily consumption of seven to eight cups of green tea might reduce LDL-cholesterol oxidation to an extent reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
In Japan, researchers have found that green tea may protect the ageing brain, as regular consumption means lesser risk of mental decline due to age.
Further, a study of 1003 70-year-old adults revealed that those who drank two or more cups a day were about half as likely to show cognitive impairment as those who drank three cups or less each week. Men and women who averaged one cup per day fell somewhere in between.
In addition, catechins have exhibited a variety of anti-inflammatory effects, raising hopes that they might be helpful in treating some forms of arthritis, dermatosis, gout and other inflammatory conditions.
Green tea also has thermogenic properties and promotes fat oxidation. There is in vitro evidence that green tea and its catechins have some antiviral and other antimicrobial activities.
Recently various green tea catechins were shown to inhibit extracellular release of vero toxin from enterohemorrhagic E. coli.
The writer has carried out research on green tea catechins at John Wayne Cancer Institute at Santa Monica, Los Angeles, California.
Tuesday, October 31, 2006
New research in animals suggests that tea may be a simple, inexpensive means of preventing diabetes and its ensuing complications, including cataracts. Researchers fed green and black tea to diabetic rats for three months and then monitored the chemical composition of the rats' blood and eye lenses.
At levels that would be equivalent to less than five cups of tea per day for a human, both teas significantly inhibited cataract formation relative to a control group which did not get tea, according to Joe Vinson, Ph.D., a chemist at the University of Scranton (Penn.) and lead author of the paper.
Another study on tea, done by researchers from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, found that the popular beverage may increase insulin activity.
Using black, green and oolong teas, the scientists found that tea increased insulin activity by about 15-fold in tests using fat cells obtain from rats.
The effect was primarily due to epigallocatechin gallate, an active compound found in tea, says study leader Richard A. Anderson, Ph.D., of the USDA's Agricultural Research Service in Beltsville, Md.
The American Chemical Society is a nonprofit organization, chartered by the U.S. Congress, with a multidisciplinary membership of more than 158,000 chemists and chemical engineers. It publishes numerous scientific journals and databases, convenes major research conferences and provides educational, science policy and career programs in chemistry. Its main offices are in Washington, D.C., and Columbus, Ohio.
American Chemical Society
Monday, October 02, 2006
The Ohsaki Study
Context Green tea polyphenols have been extensively studied as cardiovascular disease and cancer chemopreventive agents in vitro and in animal studies. However, the effects of green tea consumption in humans remain unclear.
Objective To investigate the associations between green tea consumption and all-cause and cause-specific mortality.
Design, Setting, and Participants The Ohsaki National Health Insurance Cohort Study, a population-based, prospective cohort study initiated in 1994 among 40 530 Japanese adults aged 40 to 79 years without history of stroke, coronary heart disease, or cancer at baseline. Participants were followed up for up to 11 years (1995-2005) for all-cause mortality and for up to 7 years (1995-2001) for cause-specific mortality.
Main Outcome Measures Mortality due to cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all causes.
Results Over 11 years of follow-up (follow-up rate, 86.1%), 4209 participants died, and over 7 years of follow-up (follow-up rate, 89.6%), 892 participants died of cardiovascular disease and 1134 participants died of cancer. Green tea consumption was inversely associated with mortality due to all causes and due to cardiovascular disease. The inverse association with all-cause mortality was stronger in women (P = .03 for interaction with sex). In men, the multivariate hazard ratios of mortality due to all causes associated with different green tea consumption frequencies were 1.00 (reference) for less than 1 cup/d, 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-1.05) for 1 to 2 cups/d, 0.95 (95% CI, 0.85-1.06) for 3 to 4 cups/d, and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.79-0.98) for 5 or more cups/d, respectively (P = .03 for trend). The corresponding data for women were 1.00, 0.98 (95% CI, 0.84-1.15), 0.82 (95% CI, 0.70-0.95), and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.67-0.89), respectively (P<.001 for trend). The inverse association with cardiovascular disease mortality was stronger than that with all-cause mortality. This inverse association was also stronger in women (P = .08 for interaction with sex). In women, the multivariate hazard ratios of cardiovascular disease mortality across increasing green tea consumption categories were 1.00, 0.84 (95% CI, 0.63-1.12), 0.69 (95% CI, 0.52-0.93), and 0.69 (95% CI, 0.53-0.90), respectively (P = .004 for trend). Among the types of cardiovascular disease mortality, the strongest inverse association was observed for stroke mortality. In contrast, the hazard ratios of cancer mortality were not significantly different from 1.00 in all green tea categories compared with the lowest-consumption category.
Conclusion Green tea consumption is associated with reduced mortality due to all causes and due to cardiovascular disease but not with reduced mortality due to cancer.
Author Affiliations: Division of Epidemiology, Department of Public Health and Forensic Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine (Drs Kuriyama, Shimazu, Ohmori, Kikuchi, Nakaya, and Tsuji), and Division of Health Policy, Tohoku University School of Public Policy (Dr Tsubono), Sendai, Japan; Division of Epidemiology, Miyagi Cancer Center Research Institute, Natori, Japan (Dr Nishino).
This Week in JAMA
THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN CITED BY OTHER ARTICLES
Saturday, September 30, 2006
Each year there is a mounting fear as the flu season approaches. With much of the attention given to the avian flu this year, the level of anxiety has increased in many people. With these concerns there is an interest in finding alternatives that can help fight the flu.
Several studies show that green tea – in particular chemicals called polyphenols – decrease the infectivity of the influenza virus. A study conducted at Pace University indicated that green tea extracts and polyphenols have an adverse effect on bacteria that cause strep throat and other infections. Milton Schiffenbauer, PhD, a microbiologist and biology professor at Pace University in New York City, stated in a news release that, “Our research shows tea extracts can destroy the organism that causes disease. If we can stimulate the immune system and at the same time we are destroying the organisms then it makes sense to drink more tea.”
Green tea is produced from the leaves of an evergreen plant called Camellia sinensis. The major active ingredient in green tea is believed to be the polyphenol compounds called catechins. These key compounds include EGCG, EGC, and ECG.
A study in the August 2005 journal Antiviral Research, examines these compounds against three currently circulating influenza viruses. The authors performed a number of experiments to examine the effects of green tea on these flu strains.
They found that these compounds were effective in reducing the plaque forming capabilities of the viruses. A plaque is produced when a virus infects a cell, replicates, and then kills that cell. EGCG and ECG at 50 μM (micromolar) inhibited more than 50% of the plaque forming ability of the influenza viruses. However, when all the polyphenols were combined the mixture reduced the plaque forming by over 90% and in the case of one flu strain (A/Chile/1/83 – H1N1) by nearly 100%.
Other experiments showed that the greater the concentration of green tea polyphenols the more of the flu virus was inhibited. “The results suggest that the antiviral effect is exerted not only in the initially infecting viruses but newly propagated viruses as well.”
After drinking 1 cup of tea, the maximum blood concentration of EGCG in humans reaches 60 micromoles in adults weighing 60 kg (132 pounds). Some authors recommend as many as 10 cups of green tea per day to achieve green tea’s optimal benefits, although the study authors caution that this study was done outside the human body and should be interpreted with some caution.
The author’s emphasize that the “total tea extract” was much more effective than any single of the green tea polyphenols that were tested in isolation. They note that, “dietary uptake of tea would be beneficial for direct intervention of influenza virus infection.”
SOURCE: Antiviral Research, August 2005
Tuesday, September 12, 2006
Brick Tea - Green tea steamed, dried, then pulverized into brick form.
Camellia Sinensis - The Tea Plant. The differences between the over three thousand types of tea result from variations in the processing of the leaves after they are harvested. Tea is an evergreen shrub which grows in tropical or sub-tropical climates. See Green Tea, Black Tea, Oolong and White Tea. Assam is actually Camellia Assamus.
Ceylon - Black Tea harvested in Sri Lanka, which used to be called Ceylon.
Cha - The way to say "Tea" in China.
Chanoyu - Japanese Tea Ceremony with its roots in Zen Buddhism.
Darjeeling - Tea harvested in the Darjeeling region of India.
Dragonwell Tea - Green Tea from China, which is noted for its cooling effect in hot weather.
Genmaicha - also called "popcorn tea", this is Japanese Green sencha leaves blended with roasted rice, which sometimes pops during shipment, and resembles popcorn.
Green Tea - These leaves are light green and are not fermented. The supposed benefits of Green Tea include a longer life and recent studies have associated this tea with anti-carcinogens. There are two types of green tea, Steamed and Kiln-roasted. Steaming the tea takes out its bitter taste.
Gunpowder Tea - Green Tea from China that is rolled into fine pellets that "pop" when infused. Morrocans use this for mint tea.
Herbal Tea - Not considered Tea by purists, but a tea nontheless. Jasmine, Chamomile and Mint are some popular varieties. Berries, herbs and spices are included in Herbal teas.
Hojicha - Green tea that is left flat (not rolled) and oven roasted after manufacture.
Infusion - simply put, herbal tea, called Tisane in France.
Keemun - Black Tea harvested in the Anwhei Province of China, appreciated because, unlike other teas, it actually gets better with age. (Hao Ya is the finest grade of this type of tea.)
Kung Fu Tea - Kung Fu is a Chinese phrase for anything that requires special skills. Mostly known as Kung Fu (cantonese for Gong Fu) martial arts, but can also apply to skillful tea preparation (kung fu style) or tea processing without breaking leaves.
Lapsang Souchong - Black Tea harvested in the Fujian Province of China. It had a smoky flavor, from drying leaves over pine fires.
Luk Yu - (or Lu Yu, depending on who's translating) The Tang dynasty writer and poet who wrote the Cha Jing (The Tea Classic) which summarized the entire tea industry at the time from cultivation to enjoyment.
Matcha - Literally, "Liquid Jade" in Japanese, this is a finely ground green tea used in Chanoyu.
Nilgiri - Black Tea harvested in Southern India
Oolong - Partially fermented tea. A cross between black and green tea. They are mainly produced in Taiwan and the Fuchien and Chianghsi provinces of China. Formosa Oolong (Oolong from Taiwan) is considered the best.
Pekoe - (pronounced Peck-o) from Pek Ho which is Cantonese for Bai Hau, meaning the bud of the tea plant after processing. Pekoe, and Orange Pekoe have come to mean the name of any whole leaf black tea that is flavored, and have nothing to do with the bud anymore.
Pu-Erh - Tea harvested in the Yunnan province of China, the leaves are large, and are used to make black, green and oolong teas. Valued more for its medicinal value than it's taste, it is often blended with chrysanthemum.
Red Tea - The same thing as Black Tea, called so in China, because of its reddish color when brewed.
White Tea - A rare tea found in China. These amber leaves are not fermented, and are comprised only of the tips of the tea plant. They stand up on end in the cup when served. Considered a delicacy. Pai Mu Tan is a type of white tea.
Yixing teapot - This unglazed pot comes from the purple clay in the Yixing region of China, and is touted for its flavor and ability to conserve heat. It is said if one uses this porous pot for many years, one can get a great pot of tea simply by adding water to an empty Yixing pot! (It remains the connoisseur's choice of material for making teapots.)
Yunnan - Black Tea harvested in the Yunnan Province of China, not to be confused with Pu-Erh. Yunnan Black is served complete with buds, to produce a golden color and flavor.
Tuesday, August 15, 2006
Matcha (抹茶) is a Japanese Green Tea that is stone ground into a fine powder. I was very surprised at the great taste of this tea and I am now making my fourth cup.
Matcha (抹茶) is used in the Japanese tea ceremony (cha-no-yu, chadō, or sadō 茶道) from around the 12th century, but here in the 21st century I will use it for a refreshing beverage!
Monday, July 31, 2006
Studies Have Shown Coffee and Tea Have Several Health Benefits
June 27, 2006 — - When you reach for that mug in the morning, you may get more benefits than a jump-start to the day.
Daily cups of coffee have been linked to a reduced risk of Parkinson's disease, liver cancer, gallstones and type 2 diabetes. In addition, green tea and white tea have been touted for their health benefits.
"What's interesting really is for years we were beating up on coffee. … And now study after study is suggesting benefits," said "Good Morning America" medical contributor David Katz.
So given the choice between coffee and tea, what's the healthiest thing you can reach for in the morning?
You can find Katz's advice below. Full disclosure: He's a coffee drinker.
How Much to Have?
The maximum recommended amount of coffee is four 8-ounce cups a day, although it depends on the individual in terms of body size, among other factors. Because caffeine has been shown to raise blood pressure, you should limit your intake if you have any blood pressure abnormalities. More than four cups is never recommended.
There is the strong suggestion that the antioxidants in tea -- whether it's black, green or white -- have health benefits. Antioxidants can prevent inflammation of the blood vessels, and it has been linked to reduced risk for cancer. In terms of antioxidants, white tea has the most, followed by green tea, black tea and coffee. Green and white teas are made from different parts of the tea leaves, but both are minimally processed, unlike black tea, which is fermented. It appears the process of fermentation reduces the antioxidants in the final product.
Caffeine is associated with enhanced alertness, increased productivity and concentration when you're driving, and enhanced athletic performances. In terms of caffeine, coffee has the most followed by black tea, green tea and white tea.
Tea Vs. Tea Beverages
Because the health benefits of tea has become more recognized by the public, some manufacturers are putting a small amount of it in a product, then adding ingredients that are bad for you, such as sugar. For instance, a Snapple Green Tea has 46 grams of sugar in it -- the equivalent of about 11 sugar cubes. That's more than twice as much sugar as you get in a Hershey chocolate bar, which as 22 grams of sugar. Just because the label says white tea doesn't make it a healthy drink.
"Our green teas provide consumers with functional benefits … and great taste," Snapple said in a statement on its product. "We offer a lime green tea in both a diet and regular version, giving consumers different choice and calorie options."
Coffee or Tea?
If you have a choice between coffee or tea, Katz says tea is better. If coffee is part of your morning routine, you have nothing to worry about.
Sunday, July 16, 2006
I really did not care for the flavor of the tea, but I drink all of my teas unsweetened and I may try my next cup of Lychee Tea sweetened with some honey (if I sweeten my tea I usually use honey as my first try, then I'll try pure cane sugar next).
Sunday, May 14, 2006
This white tea I just bought from Adagio Teas is one of the better white teas I have had in a very long time. The infused color ot the tea is very light and the taste is kind of nutty with a very clean finish.
I have recently started to enjoy white tea because I have held back on buying white tea due to it's high price and needing to use twice the amount of regular black and green teas. But after finally breaking down to buy some white tea, I am now addicted to white teas.
Sunday, April 09, 2006
Sunday, March 26, 2006
1 cardamom pod
1 cinnamon stick (broken into pieces)
1 1/2 cups water
1/8 teaspoon ground ginger
1/16 teaspoon black pepper (optional)
1/4 cup of milk
1 tablespoon sugar
1 tablespoon black tea
* Crush the cloves, cardamom pods, and cinnamon.
* Place in a pan and add water, ginger and pepper and bring to a boil.
* Remove from heat and allow to brew for five minutes.
* Add the milk and sugar, and boil again.
* Remove from heat, add tea, cover, and brew for three to five minutes.
* Strain and serve.
Saturday, March 25, 2006
Tuesday, March 21, 2006
Saturday, March 18, 2006
Thursday, March 16, 2006
I am glad to say we have a tea room here in Orlando, Florida. It's located in College Park right near downtown, and easy to get to from anywhere in the metro area.
The name of the tea room is Infusion Tea, and I like to go there with my wife and have a cuppa or two.
Wednesday, March 15, 2006
I have used this tea pot for many years now. The company that sells this claims:
The most convenient teapot you will find anywhere - we guarantee it. When tea is ready, simply place it atop your cup. This will cause a valve at the bottom to release: crystal-clear tea flows down, while the mesh filter retains all the leaves with one of the best infusers on the market. Super easy to clean and dishwasher safe. And it's microwaveable - perfect for the office or the road. You will wonder how you got along without one. Made in Taiwan of food-grade plastic.
I use an eltric kettle to heat the water for steeping my tea and just pour it right over the tea inside the tea pot shown above.
This tea is a dark leaf tea that brews into a medium to dark liquor with a bold taste. I enjoy this one in the mornings hot and mid-day iced.
This tea is Indonesian in origin, and is very economical in price.
Temi Estate Sikkim is a good alternative for Darjeeling tea lovers (like myself). The tannin level in this tea is often accentuated by a natural fruity note that resembles a grape aroma. The leaves have silvery tips that produce a cup that is rich with a medium body. The tea is best served hot, but can also be served iced.
The same works with green tea and white tea. Just don't mix black tea with green tea or white tea with the other two. Keep the teas in the same family.
But remember that all teas have a shelf life (except for Pu-Erh teas which actually improve with age), so don't over do it with a whole lot of teas. A good rule of thumb is to only buy the amount of tea you can drink in six months or so.
This white tea that I am drinking right now is a fine organic selection with a herbaceous aroma, full flavor, and clean aftertaste. The cup has a subtle sweetness and is well-balanced, with delicate walnut flavor overtones.
If your source of water is suspect, try using bottled spring water or purified water; many teas have a variety of subtle flavors that can be destroyed or masked by poor water that contains heavy concentrations of iron or other impurities. Correct water temperature is essential as well. Black teas should be brewed with water that has just come to a rolling boil. Oolongs are often best when steeped with water near the boiling point. For green and white teas, always use water that is less than boiling to avoid a bitter infusion.
Steeping instructions often advise the addition of a teaspoon of tea for each cup and "one for the pot." However, a small, preheated pot will generally not require this extra spoonful, especially if high quality tea is used. Begin with a teaspoonful per cup or use our brewing suggestions listed for each tea in the online catalog, but do not hesitate to adjust the amount until you find the right balance of flavors. Each tea is unique -- as is each tea drinker.
Steeping time depends on the type of leaf and its leaf grade. Many teas yield a pale liquor, so steep by time not color. If milk is to be added, the steeping time must be long enough for sufficient flavor elements and tannins to be extracted. Too short a steeping time will result in a thin, insipid tea. Conversely, over-steeping will yield a bitter tea with an overpowering imbalance of tannin.
The Chatsford Teapot makes the preparation of loose tea quick and easy for everyday use. Fitted with a convenient tab for effortless removal, the ample mesh infuser basket allows full infusion without restricting leaf expansion. Rinse the pot thoroughly with boiling water to warm it, and then pour this water off. Place the infuser basket with tea leaves into the pot and add the hot or boiling water. Cover with the lid, and a cosy if desired, and let the tea steep for the desired time. Once the infusion is complete, pull out the basket to halt infusion. Since dust-sized particles will inevitably pass through the infuser and continue to steep, serve the tea as soon as possible.
If you wish to steep the leaves loose in a pot or cup, be sure to pour the excess liquor into another pot to prevent over-steeping. A high-quality, metal strainer or nylon infuser will remove most particles of tea and result in a perfectly infused cup of tea.
Consideration of these few simple factors -- good water, the correct amount of tea, accurate steeping time, and a quality teapot -- will result in a great pot of tea.
This white tea has a full yet delicate taste, nutty flavor notes and sweet aroma. The leaf sets are impressive, with down-covered leaves and a large percentage of white tips. The taste is one that will get you back to the pot for more.
I just finished a pot of tea called "Organic Pai Mu Tan". This white tea is a flavorful tea with a delicate liquor that is smooth and pleasingly sweet. I would not add any kind of sweetener to the infused liquid, for in my belief any kind of sweetener can ruin the taste of most teas. I also think that the only way to drink this tea is hot.
In God's Grace,
Part 3: Lipton Enters the Tea Market
By contrast, Thomas Lipton was strictly a one-man show, but his gregarious personality and innate work ethic made him a single-handed force that rivaled the Gilman-Hartford team. The parallel developments of the A&P in the U.S. and the global Lipton empire are interesting for their similarities as well as for their contrasts.
Lipton came from a family of modest means. His parents left Ireland during the Potato Famine and settled in Glasgow, where industrial expansion provided ample work at modest wages. The frugal Liptons saved a small amount every week, and within a few years saved enough to open a tiny provisions shop in their neighborhood. Their selection was limited to a few local products, mostly hams, eggs, and butter. In his memoirs, Lipton referred to his parents store as a “tiny, wee shop … so small that half a dozen people would have had to jostle to get inside it at the same time.”
Thomas took a keen interest in his parents' venture, and soon revealed a precocious knack for salesmanship. When he observed his father counting out six eggs for a customer, and noticed that the eggs looked rather small in his father's large hands, he later suggested, “Why don't you let mother serve the eggs … [her] hands are much smaller than yours and the eggs would look much bigger in her hands …”.
Lipton attended school for a brief time, but he was never much interested in his classes, and was, by his own admission, an undistinguished student. By the age of nine he quit school, took his first job, and became a contributor to the family fortunes. No matter how busy he kept himself at various jobs, Lipton found himself drawn to the docks where ships were constantly arriving from and departing to places that promised adventure and fortune. Almost on a whim, he booked steerage passage on a ship bound for New York and, at the age of fourteen, announced to his parents that he was leaving for America. It was a bit of a shock to his parents, but he was determined and would not be dissuaded.
Upon arriving in New York, Lipton found that the thirty shillings he had left in his pocket would not last long if he had to pay for lodging. Innkeepers were waiting at the docks, trying to lure passengers who would need accommodations upon their arrival. Lipton quickly hatched a brilliant scheme. He approached one of the innkeepers who had a familiar Irish accent and bargained a free week's rent in exchange for delivering a dozen paying guests. He had made many friends during the long passage, and was easily able to deliver thirteen on the promised twelve guests. This transaction was of the sort that would become classic Lipton over the decades to come. He was able to seize upon opportunities that others would not see, make decisions quickly, and utilize his wits and outgoing personality to close a deal in short order.
Jobs were not as plentiful in New York as Lipton had expected. Civil War soldiers returning from war were hired preferentially over new immigrants, and the economy was in disarray. Prospects were rumored to be better in the devastated South, so, with a few dimes left in his pocket, young Lipton headed for Virginia, where he found work harvesting tobacco.
The first few years of Lipton's adventures in America are poorly documented. In Leaves from the Lipton Logs, Lipton provides a few anecdotes, but mostly glosses over this period with a single sentence: “I feel I could go on indefinitely recalling these youthful experiences in different parts of the States, but I must really pass on to the chain of events which had so much influence in moulding my whole future career.”
After a few years of exploring the South, Lipton was compelled to return to the excitement and commerce of New York. This time he found a job in a prosperous grocery store, where his natural salesmanship and quick wit brought rapid promotions and financial stability. There was a dynamic to New York merchandising that galvanized young Lipton, especially in contrast to what he remembered from the traditional marketing that was prevalent back home.
It is certain that Lipton would have done well had he stayed in the U.S. He loved retail, especially on the grander scale of New York, compared to that of his native country. But after four years’ absence, Lipton longed to see “the old folks at home”. He returned to Glasgow in 1869, anxious to see his family and eager to apply “New World” marketing ideas to the family business.
He did what he could with the tiny shop, decorating the windows, setting out the provisions in attractive displays, and relating to the customers in a more sociable style. In a short time he was able to shore up the struggling business and before long the bank account had a balance that it had never seen before — just over 100 pounds! For Thomas, it was time to expand and open another store, but the elder Lipton was far more cautious than his impetuous son. He would have none of it.
Frustrated and impatient, young Tom Lipton decided that he would have to embark on his own. At the age of twenty-one, Lipton outfitted a small shop on Stobcross Street with half of his savings, keeping the rest as reserves for unforeseen expenses, as well as to tide him over until he started to turn a profit. This did not take long, for on his first day the tiny shop had proceeds of two pounds, six shillings. It was far more than his parent's shop had ever sold in a single day.
Lipton's store stood out among others in the area. He kept it spotlessly clean inside and out. At night he kept the gas lights ablaze, making sure that everyone would notice attractive displays in the brightly lit windows as they passed. He advertised frequently and in novel ways to widen the audience for his store. Lipton was one of the first retailers in the U.K. to realize that a store could be a destination and attract customers from miles away, rather than simply providing for the immediate neighborhood. Judicious advertising and bold promotions were tools that Lipton utilized throughout his career.
Three years after the opening of his first store, a second shop was opened, to be followed by a third a few months later. Each store was profitable from the start, and since Lipton did not extend credit, the profits were realized as cash in the bank. Lipton was never comfortable with debt, either from his customers or for himself, so he never extended credit and never borrowed to open a new store.
In spite of this conservative approach, he became the sole proprietor of twenty stores after five brief years, and each was hugely profitable. Expansion continued at an escalating pace, and Lipton's reputation began to spread throughout the United Kingdom. Landlords were quick to offer properties to Lipton as soon as they became vacant, for everyone knew Lipton would keep the property in top condition and the rent would be paid promptly. He had his pick of real estate and was quick to sign a lease when a location was right. He was just as quick to walk away if an offer did not appeal to him.
For decades to follow, Lipton was focused entirely on expansion. The strategy was simple: new stores would open as fast as cash flow permitted, and as long as attractive locations were available. Once, when asked by a member of Parliament for his political convictions, his reply was simply, “My politics are to open a new shop every week!”
Having hundreds of shops to provision soon became a challenge, as local farmers could not keep up with the demands of his growing list of loyal customers. At the height of his empire, the chain of Lipton stores sold tons of butter and thousands of hams per day. He turned to Denmark and Sweden for butter and other supplies. Sales of Lipton hams eventually outstripped the capacity of all of his European sources.
Lipton's solution was to purchase meat processing plants in Chicago and Omaha, where he would be able to ensure adequate supplies at very competitive prices. Acquisitions and product purchases were always paid for in cash, except for one occasion, which Lipton documents in his autobiography:
"… there was one occasion in my early career when I did put my name to a bill for a comparatively trifling amount … probably I had been buying goods in fairly large quantities and had not sufficient money at the moment to foot the bill…. At any rate, the thought of this bill became a mill-stone round my neck from the moment I had put my signature to it. I went off my sleep. I couldn't eat. I couldn't work. … Three days after arranging the bill I redeemed it and so restored my peace of mind. I remember to this day the feeling of intense relief with which I tore up the dread document!"And so it went, for several decades, without any serious involvement in tea! Today Lipton's name is synonymous with tea, but few people realize that Lipton's empire was in full operation well before he entered the tea trade. As Lipton, himself, stated in his memoirs:
"My name has become so inextricably associated with the merchandising of tea in the minds of nine out of every ten persons that I feel I must make this point clear -- my entry into the tea business only took place after I had more or less achieved all I originally set out to do in the general provision trade. Not till then did I begin to see the tremendous possibilities of tea as an adjunct to the other commodities in which I was dealing."The precise time at which Lipton entered the tea market could not have been better chosen. Tea from the British-owned tea plantations in India were rapidly replacing the China teas that had long dominated the market. As prices drifted lower, demand began to increase at an exponential rate. The tea market was very inefficient at the time. Wholesalers purchased tea from brokers on Mincing Lane, London’s center for commercial tea trading since 1834. Wholesalers would sell to distributors who would add their profits and sell to retail merchants. This distribution model was comparable to the one Gilman and Hartford circumvented in their A&P operation, which allowed them to sell teas significantly cheaper than the competition. Lipton would take an even bolder approach and become a tea planter!
Around the time Lipton was evaluating alternatives to purchasing tea from brokers on Mincing Lane, he uncharacteristically announced plans to take a pleasure trip to Australia. More than likely, Lipton, whose motto was “there’s no fun like work”, had another agenda in mind. This became obvious when he cut his pleasure trip short with a stop in Ceylon, which at the time was in the midst of a financial crisis due to the failure if it’s principal export crop — coffee.
In the November 6, 1869 issue of The Gardeners’ Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette, mycologist M. J. Berkeley reported on a previously unidentified fungus that was just beginning to attack certain coffee plantations in Ceylon. No existing fungus treatment seemed to work.
Recall that 1869 was also the year that Lipton returned to Scotland to work in the family store. Less than two decades later, Lipton had hundreds of stores that were perfect outlets for tea. In that same period, the tenacious coffee fungus, documented by Berkeley in 1869, devastated nearly every coffee plantation in Ceylon.
In the next issue of the Quarterly, we conclude our series with an account of how Thomas Lipton became the largest tea planter in Ceylon. The period between 1888 and 1898 was considered by him “to be the most significant in [his] career”.
Sir Thomas Lipton, Bt. Leaves from the Lipton Logs. Hutchinson & Co., 1931.